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التبادل الاعلاني
احداث منتدى مجاني

Parts of Speech

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Parts of Speech

مُساهمة من طرف Admin في الأربعاء 6 يناير - 4:33:30

Parts of Speech

NOUN
a person, place, or thing. Can be the subject or object of a sentence. Ex: cat, horse, mother, Denmark

PRONOUN
a word that replaces or stands for ("pro" = for) a noun. Ex: he, she, it

VERB
an action word. Ex: sit, laugh, screw

ADJECTIVE
a word that describes or modifies a noun. Answers the questions "how many," "what kind," etc. Ex: happy, suicidal, red, dangerous

ADVERB
a word that describes or modifies a verb. Ex: carefully, quickly, wisely. Also sometimes modifies an adjective. ("She was very tall." 'Very' is an adverb modifying 'tall,' which in turn is an adjective modifying 'she'.) Adverbs usually, but not always, end in "-ly". (However, not every word ending in "ly" is an adverb: "friendly," for example, is an adjective.)

PREPOSITION
literally "pre-position") a word that indicates the relationship of a noun (or noun phrase) to another word. Examples of prepositions are to, at, with, for, against, across. (Ending a sentence with a preposition)


Ending a Sentence with a Preposition
Contrary to popular belief, there is no agreement on this one among English professionals. In general, especially if your audience is strict about rules, don't end a sentence with a preposition. Prepositions are little words that indicate position and such: with, at, by, from, etc. In general a preposition should come before ("pre"-position) the noun it modifies. So you should change
That's the warrior I must talk to
to
That's the warrior to whom I must talk.
However, if too many "to whom"s and "of which"s are making your writing unnecessarily clumsy, go ahead and end with the preposition, especially in informal writing. Remember the famous example (credited to Winston Churchill) that goes: "This is the kind of thing up with which I will not put!"

Hopefully
Technically, this word is an adverb meaning "in a hopeful way." Therefore, "Gabrielle looked hopefully at Xena" is correct while "Hopefully we'll make it to Athens before nightfall" is incorrect. However, like so many other words, this one has evolved to take on a different meaning than its original.

I vs. Me
One of my (and my Evil Twin Katherine's) pet peeves.
Xena and me are going to Athens.

INCORRECT
This horse belongs to Xena and I.

INCORRECT
"I" is a pronoun that must be the subject, never the object, of a verb. "Me" is a pronoun that must be the object, never the subject. (The same is true for he/him, she/her, we/us, etc.)
As a simple test, try removing Xena from the sentence. You wouldn't say "Me is going to Athens." You'd say "I am going," so say "Xena and I are going." You wouldn't say "This horse belongs to I," you'd say "This horse belongs to me," so say "This horse belongs to Xena and me."

Contrary to the belief of Katherine's friend John, "Xena and I" is not always correct.


Putting Words Together

PHRASE
an expres​sion(can be a single word, but usually more) which contains a single thought but is not necessarily a complete sentence. Words make up phrases; phrases make up sentences. By some definitions, a phrase cannot contain a verb.


PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE
A phrase beginning with a preposition. Heh, heh. You could have figured that out, right? Example

SENTENCE
The basic unit of writing. A sentence should have a subject and a predicate. The subject is the noun to which the sentence's verb refers; the predicate is the verb plus whatever other parts modify or elaborate on it. Example:

There are several types of sentences. The major ones are:

DECLARATIVE
The majority of sentences are declarative. A declarative sentence makes a statement. This sentence is declarative, as are the previous two.

INTERROGATORY
An interrogatory sentence asks a question. Do you understand that? Which of these sentences is an example?

IMPERATIVE
An imperative sentence gives a command. Ex: "Shut up and kiss me." Note that an imperative sentence does not require a subject; the pronoun "you" is implied.


RUN-ON SENTENCE
A sentence that is too long and should be broken into two or more sentences. One sentence should present one basic concept; if it presents more than that, it may be a run-on. A large number of "and"s, "but"s, and similar joining words is one warning sign of a run-on.

SENTENCE FRAGMENT
A phrase that is acting like a sentence but is incomplete. Examples:
Sentence fragments are acceptable as answers to direct questions:
"Where is my sword?" "In the bushes."

More about Verbs
PASSIVE vs. ACTIVE VERBS
A verb is active when the subject performs the verb. A verb is passive when the subject is the recipient of the verb. In general, passive verb construction is considered "wimpy" or nonspecific.

CONJUGATION
To conjugate a verb is to state the form the verb takes for each person. For example, to conjugate the verb "to have" (in the present tense) you say "I have, you have, he/she/it has, we have, y'all have, they have."

TENSES
I assume we all know what past, present and future are. Most verbs take different forms depending on tense. For example, "I eat" is present, "I ate" is past and "I will eat" is future.
In addition, every verb has a past participle (p.p.). Use a form of "to have" plus the p.p. to indicate nonspecific past events.

Example: The p.p. of "to eat" is "eaten." For a specific event, use "ate": "Yesterday I ate an apple for lunch." For something that happened in the past at an unspecified time, or over a period of time, use "have" plus the p.p.: "I have eaten many apples in my lifetime." For double-past (talking about something that happened before something else in the past) use "had" plus the p.p.: "Yesterday Xena offered me an apple for dinner, but I had eaten one for lunch, so I had an orange instead."

Most (but certainly not all!) past participles end in -en, e.g. eaten, spoken, ridden.

Miscellaneous
DIRECT vs. INDIRECT OBJECT
An object is a noun that is the recipient of the verb in the sentence. It's easier to demonstrate than to explain:
Xena grabbed her sword.
Xena is the subject, because she performs the verb. "Grabbed" is the verb; "her" is a possessive pronoun; the sword is the direct object because the grabbing is performed upon it.

Xena put her sword on the table.
Xena is the subject; "put" is the verb; the sword is the direct object; the table is the indirect object.

PERSON
Tells whom the speaker (or writer) is speaking (or writing) about. The majority of stories are written in the third person singular: "Xena woke up. She was hungry, so she started a fire and made pancakes."
Some stories (notably "If on a winter's night a traveler" by Italo Calvino; also all those "Choose Your Adventure" books we loved when we were kids) are written in the second person: "You look around and see Xena approaching. You reach for your sword."

A good number of stories ("Catcher in the Rye," all the Sherlock Holmes novels, etc.) is written in first person: "I woke up to find Xena had abandoned me again. 'Gabrielle,' I said to myself, 'this is the last straw.'"

The plurals are: first person "we/us," second person "you" (or "y'all"), third person "they/them."


DECLENSION
Irrelevant in English; declension is the noun analog to conjugation. In many other lan.guages (e.g. Latin), nouns take different forms depending on how they function in sentences.

PARSING
To parse a sentence means to take it apart and identify each element in the sentence. In my mom's day, diagramming sentences (literally drawing a diagram that shows how each word and clause functions in the sentence) was a standard part of elementary education
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